MPs have rejected the government’s request for a three-day recess while the Conservatives stage their annual party conference.
It is the seventh vote the government has lost out of eight held in the Commons since Boris Johnson became PM.
MPs voted 306 to 289 to reject the motion asking for the Commons to adjourn until Thursday next week.
It follows Parliament resuming on Wednesday, after the Supreme Court ruled its suspension was unlawful.
The Conservative Party conference is due to be held in Manchester from Sunday to Wednesday.
Labour and the Liberal Democrats have already held their annual party conferences.
Following the Commons vote, Leader Jacob Rees-Mogg announced the business for the House when it sits next week.
The Domestic Abuse Bill, which has cross-party support, will be debated on Wednesday.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson is due to give his keynote speech at the Conservative Party conference on Wednesday, but that will now clash with Prime Minister’s Questions in the Commons.
Meanwhile, Mr Johnson has been urged to apologise after he said the best way to honour Jo Cox, the MP murdered during the EU referendum campaign, was to get “Brexit done”.
He was also criticised for calling the law aimed at blocking a no-deal Brexit the “surrender bill”.